One of the early directors of Rome's Accademia di San Luca, Federico Zuccaro, distinguished berween disegno interno (the conceptual part of design) and disegno esterno (design enacted through drawing). The Italian word disegno embeds both of these senses, since it can mean both drawing and design. For the Renaissance tradition it was the essential art that underlay all the others, from painting and sculpture to architecture.


One of Lucca's great advantages as a site for studying plein air painting is its intact circuit of walls. If one of the great subjects, and lessons, of working out of doors in Italy is the rapport between the natural and the man-made—a matter of both harmony and contrast—Lucca's walls afford an ideal opportunity to study the rigorously linear architectural forms and the natural elements they both support and frame.


Here are some of David Mayernik's blog posts at pleinairitaly which talk about the experience of working in and around Lucca:





The Renaissance academic tradition is rooted in the original meaning of the academy as a place of dialogue. Learning is an exchange.