Academy of design, Lucca
©David Mayernik Ltd.
One of the early directors of Rome's Accademia di San Luca, Federico Zuccaro, distinguished berween disegno interno (the conceptual part of design) and disegno esterno (design enacted through drawing). The Italian word disegno embeds both of these senses, since it can mean both drawing and design. For the Renaissance tradition it was the essential art that underlay all the others, from painting and sculpture to architecture.
The Renaissance academic tradition is rooted in the original meaning of the academy as a place of dialogue. Learning is an exchange.