This anonymous, possibly Italian, eighteenth-century anatomical study is a model of what academic drawing aimed for before the nineteenth century. Rooted in Raphael, filtered through the Carracci academy, refined by the French Academy, it is quintessentially a drawing—with all the deliberate evidence of the (accomplished) human hand. Here are the essentials of that technique:

 

I. sanguine: nuanced values in a warm hue

II. sinuous line: not just a contour, it suggests volume

III. descriptive hatching; not shading, hatching

IV. careful, clear value distinctions (achieved by varying both the line wight and the spacing between lines

V. attention to reflected light; actually, emphasizing it

 

This is the foundation of David Mayernik's technique. You can find some examples of his drawings from the model here on this site.

 

A Canon:

Raphael

Pontormo

Correggio

Tintoretto

Annibale Carracci

Bernini

Bacciccio

Coypel

Watteau

Bouchardon

Fragonard

H. Robert

Piazzetta

Tiepolo