Academy of design, Lucca
©David Mayernik Ltd.
This anonymous, possibly Italian, eighteenth-century anatomical study is a model of what academic drawing aimed for before the nineteenth century. Rooted in Raphael, filtered through the Carracci academy, refined by the French Academy, it is quintessentially a drawing—with all the deliberate evidence of the (accomplished) human hand. Here are the essentials of that technique:
I. sanguine: nuanced values in a warm hue
II. sinuous line: not just a contour, it suggests volume
III. descriptive hatching; not shading, hatching
IV. careful, clear value distinctions (achieved by varying both the line wight and the spacing between lines
V. attention to reflected light; actually, emphasizing it
This is the foundation of David Mayernik's technique. You can find some examples of his drawings from the model here on this site.
Raphael show at Oxford's Ashmolean Museum